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      Cathode Ray Tubes

      Take a look at all of our blog posts based on cathode ray tubes. Read them all here.

      PH electode Made on auto lathes

      5 Key Industries in Which Our Products Can be Used

      1024 472 Matthew Morris

      In an era where technology and science continue to break boundaries, certain specialised glass products have begun to play pivotal roles in various critical settings.

      Among these are some of the products manufactured right here at Moores Glassworks, standing out for their versatility and indispensability.

      These components, though often hidden from the public eye, are essential in many different industries, environments, and applications.

      Understanding the diverse uses for our products not only highlights their importance but also underscores the technological advancements they facilitate.

      We’ve created this guide to tell you more.

      5 Industries Where Our Products Thrive

      Military Applications

      The military sector demands precision, reliability, and cutting-edge technology to ensure the safety and effectiveness of its operations.

      Vacuum viewports and cathode ray tubes serve as critical components in this high-stakes environment.

      Vacuum viewports, for instance, are integral to night vision equipment, enabling soldiers to operate in low-light conditions with enhanced visibility.

      Cathode ray tubes, although considered a technology of the past in consumer electronics, still find relevance in military displays due to their durability and reliability in extreme conditions.

      These components contribute significantly to the military’s capabilities, from secure communications systems that rely on the clear transmission of information to navigation displays in aircraft and ships, ensuring precise movements in complex operations.

      The integration of these technologies into military equipment exemplifies their impact on operational effectiveness and the safety of personnel.

      Scientific Research and Laboratories

      In the realm of scientific research, photomultiplier envelopes, photoionization detectors, and vacuum viewports are indispensable tools that propel the boundaries of knowledge.

      Photomultiplier tubes, encased in envelopes, are crucial in experiments that require the detection of low levels of light, such as in particle physics and astronomy. They amplify the signals from photons to measurable levels, enabling scientists to observe phenomena that would otherwise be invisible.

      Photoionization detectors play a pivotal role in environmental science and chemistry, where detecting and measuring the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is essential.

      These detectors facilitate air quality monitoring and the study of atmospheric chemistry, contributing to our understanding of pollution and its effects on climate change, and here at Moore’s Glassworks, we specialise in building glass bodies for this equipment.

      Vacuum viewports, with their ability to maintain a vacuum while providing visual access, are invaluable in laboratory experiments that require observation under controlled atmospheric conditions.

      They are used in a wide range of scientific applications, from electron microscopy to high-energy physics experiments, where maintaining a pristine environment is critical.

      Glass being formed

      Industrial Use

      In the industrial sector, cathode envelopes and photoionization detectors are fundamental to maintaining efficiency, quality, and safety.

      Cathode envelopes, used in cathode ray tubes, find applications in the visualisation of processes in control rooms and for monitoring equipment status, contributing to the smooth operation of manufacturing processes.

      Photoionization detectors, on the other hand, are essential for ensuring workplace safety, especially in industries dealing with chemicals and hazardous substances.

      They provide real-time monitoring of toxic vapours, allowing for immediate action to prevent exposure and mitigate risks.

      These technologies not only enhance operational efficiency but also play a critical role in protecting workers and the environment.

      Electronics and Technology

      The electronics and technology sector continues to evolve at a rapid pace, with cathode ray tubes and vacuum viewports playing key roles in its development.

      Despite the widespread adoption of LCD and OLED displays, cathode ray tubes find niche applications in specialised electronics where their robustness and unique display characteristics are preferred.

      Vacuum viewports facilitate the development and testing of electronic devices under vacuum conditions, crucial for semiconductor manufacturing and research.

      They enable precise control and observation of processes at the molecular level, ensuring the high quality and reliability of electronic components.

      These products not only contribute to the advancement of consumer electronics but also support the research and development activities that drive innovation in the technology sector.

      Aerospace Exploration

      Aerospace exploration, a field that embodies human ambition and ingenuity, relies on photomultiplier envelopes and vacuum viewports to push the boundaries of our knowledge and capabilities.

      In the harsh environment of space, photomultiplier tubes are used as instruments that study celestial phenomena, from analysing the composition of distant stars to detecting cosmic rays.

      Vacuum viewports play a crucial role in the testing and observation of space-bound equipment, ensuring that they can withstand the vacuum of space.

      These components are essential for the success of satellite technology and space exploration missions, enabling research that increases our understanding of the universe and improves communication technologies on Earth.

      Specialist Glass Manufacturing from Moore’s Glassworks

      All of these products are more than just components; they are the building blocks of modern technology and science.

      Their applications across the various sectors mentioned throughout this blog demonstrate their versatility and the critical role they play in advancing human knowledge and capability.

      As technology continues to evolve, the importance of these products in enabling innovation and ensuring safety and efficiency in various applications cannot be overstated.

      Here at Moore’s Glassworks, our team are proud to work across many different industries, providing glass products that are fit for purpose and built to last.

      If you want to know more, then get in touch today.


      A Guide to Manufacturing Cathode Ray Tube Glass

      370 220 Matthew Morris

      The cathode ray tube is an item that many people would not know the use of if confronted with the name alone.

      While a cathode ray tube (CRT) is a fairly unknown thing, many of us have them in our homes, workplaces, and in the many different places we visit every day.

      One of the most common examples of this is in TV sets. 95% of UK homes have a TV set, and most of these will contain one of these tubes.

      One of the key components of the CRT  is the glass envelope of which all of the smaller parts are stored, including the electron gun and the phosphor-coated screen.

      Here at Moore’s Glassworks, we are custom glass manufacturers who specialises in certain items, such as CRTs.

      Throughout our blog, we like to give you insights into just what goes on in our manufacturing plant, and that’s why we’ve created this guide on how we create cathode ray tube glass.

      Let’s take a look.

      The Requirements of Cathode Ray Tube Glass

      In order for a CRT to function properly, there are several requirements that the glass envelope we manufacture must adhere to.

      These include:

      • Transparency – The way a cathode ray tube works is that electrons pass through it to strike the phosphor-coated screen. Any impurities in the transparency of the glass, such as marks or blemishes, can interfere with the electron transmission and make it unable to work as it should. This is why ensuring the glass is completely transparent is so vital.
      • Thermal Stability – The inside of a cathode ray tube can exceed 1000 degrees Celsius. If the glass is not made to withstand this much pressure, it could crack, so we must ensure every CRT envelope is tough against heat and able to deal with the rigours of thermal expansion without it leading to any damage.
      • Smooth – A CRT is used to display images on electronic devices, so to make sure the image being shown is clear and without any blurring, you must have a smooth glass. If there are any bumps or chips then the image may be distorted.
      • Strength – When it comes to manufacturing, exporting, and using a CRT, there are a lot of pressures that the item is put under. You must make sure your glass is of the right consistency and strength to be durable against all of these processes without wilting or cracking or else you may find the need for a replacement within a short time of it’s manufacture.
      • Thickness – When it comes to the thickness of the glass envelope, consistency is key. If you have different levels of thickness throughout your envelope, then this will cause the image to distort. Also, having glass that is too thick can cause the image to blur and not be as sharp and clear as needed.

      There are many features CRT glass must have, and these are just a select few.

      This is why it is always a good choice to work with a team that specialises in creating such items if you are looking to have some manufactured.

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      The Cathode Ray Tube Glass Manufacturing Process

      Step 1: Create the Glass

      As with all glass products, the process of forming and melting the glass is the first one.

      Whether with pre-mixed materials, glass you simply have to melt down, or working from scratch combining raw materials such as silica sand, soda, ash, and limestone, you must begin by getting a concoction ready to be molded.

      Once you have your mixture and it has been heated (often to temperatures well above 1000 degrees) pour the glass onto a flat surface where it can be cooled and annealed to remove any residual stresses.

      Step 2: Get the Right Size

      Now you must separate your glass so that you have just the right size that you need to get to work.

      This depends solely on the item you are making, and one of the benefits of working with a custom glass manufacturer is that they can create items in a wide range of sizes, listening to you and your needs first.

      Once you have the glass you need, it must be checked for any bubbles or cracks as well as the uneven thickness mentioned earlier.

      This is a crucial time and any sheets that are showing defects should not be used as it may affect the final product.

      It is also a good idea to give the glass a clean and polish to ensure the surface is as smooth as possible.

      Step 3: Form the Shape

      Now your CRT can begin to come to life.

      Through a process called drawing, the glass is heated until soft and then stretched and pulled until it resembles a long, narrow tube.

      This will be the main shape of your CRT, so it is vital that you stick closely to the required measurements.

      Once you have the tube at your desired length, it can be cut and the ends can be heated and polished whilst under heat to make sure all edges are smooth and there are no sharp bits that could cause injury.

      Step 4: Seal the Tube

      At this point, the tube is still open at both ends.

      The next step is to seal one end of the tube with a stem, which will serve as the point of attachment for the electron gun. The stem is made of a different type of glass that has a lower melting point than the main glass envelope. The stem is heated and fused to the end of the tube, creating an airtight seal.

      While at Moore’s Glassworks, we manufacture the casings, if you wanted to complete the full CRT, then follow the steps below.

      The other end of the tube is left open, and the inside of the tube is coated with a layer of phosphors. The phosphors emit light when struck by electrons, creating the image on the screen. The phosphor coating is applied using a process called vacuum deposition, in which a layer of phosphor material is evaporated in a vacuum chamber and allowed to settle onto the inside of the tube.

      Finally, the electron gun is inserted into the stem at the sealed end of the tube. The electron gun emits a beam of electrons, which are focused and directed onto the phosphor-coated screen by magnetic fields. When the electrons strike the phosphors, they emit light, creating the image on the screen.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture with Moore’s Glassworks

      The manufacture of CRT glass is a complex process that requires lots of precision and attention to detail.

      If you’re looking for custom manufacturing of cathode ray tube glass then why not get in touch with Moore’s Glassworks.

      We have years of experience creating these items, and know just how to make envelopes that are fully functional and always high quality.

      Want to know more? Then contact our team today.

      Or why not check out our previous blogs on the many uses and the story of cathode ray tubes?

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      The Story of the Cathode Ray Tube

      952 600 Matthew Morris

      For most people, the cathode ray tube (CRT) may sound like an alien object.

      In a nutshell, it is an gun that fires electrons onto a surface. When the beams hit the surface, which is often phosphorescent, the beam becomes visible. This in turn creates an image.

      If you think this sounds like something from a sci-fi novel, then you’re wrong, as most people probably have cathode ray tubes in objects around their home. Before the birth of LED and LCD television screens, most of the TVs around used CRTs to function.

      The electron gun is stored in a tube. When this is manipulated, the beams that are emitted from the gun create different images when connecting with the phosphorescent screen, thus an image appears on your computer or television screen.

      But how did this come to be? And how did something so technical end up inside television screens across the land?

      Let’s take a look.

      Finding the Rays

      Many different figures feature in the origin of the CRT.

      First came the discovery of the cathode ray. Two German physicists by the names of Johan Wilhelm Hittorf and Julius Plucker are given credit for first spotting rays being shot from a cathode. A cathode is a negatively charged electrode, and it was when luminous shapes started to emerge inside a tube containing one, that the cathode ray was found.

      By moving a magnet near the tube, Plucker found he could manipulate the rays, and the idea of using rays to produce images first became a possibility.

      Other names who were paramount in the origin of the CRT were Arthur Schuster and William Crookes, who further developed Plucker and Hittorf’s work into how magnetic and electric fields could change the direction of the electron beam.

      Next came the gun to fire them with.

      The Braun Tube

      Karl Ferdinand Braun was another German physicist who carried also a keen interest in engineering.

      In 1897, he created what he called ‘the Braun tube’. This was the first CRT that was made to present images on a screen and paved the way for the future uses of such a device.

      From Braun’s initial invention, the CRT continued to evolve. Into the 20th century, the whole world began to know about the tube, and this led to further experimentation on just what the capabilities of this device were.

      Hollow Cathode

      Hollow Cathode

      The Journey to the Screen

      In 1922, two engineers at Western Electrics began to use hot cathodes in a CRT. This meant that a cathode was heated electrically, and used thermionic emissions to fire electrons. Compared to cold cathodes which had previously been used, this essentially meant less power was needed, and more power was emitted.

      The next step was to get it working, and this took place in Japan. Dubbed ‘the father of television’, Kenjiro Takanayagi is credited with being the creator of the first CRT television. In 1926, Takanayagi used an electronic CRT to create a symbol. It was a letter similar to the British T but was actually the first letter of the old Japanese alphabet.

      The resolution was 40 lines, but a year later this had increased to 100. Another year later he was able to create images such as faces. Less than a decade on from when he produced an image of a letter, in 1935, Takanayagi had invented the first electronic television set.

      If looking in slow motion at a CRT television, you would notice the lines begin at the top of the screen, and work their way down from left to right. This was how the images were produced, in a gradual and methodical way. Over time the process sped up, to the point where it was unnoticeable.

      The CRT television was born, and now all that was left to do was make it stronger.

      The Rise of the CRT TV

      From the mid-1930s onwards, the CRT began to rise in prominence. Televisions began to be produced on a huge scale, as well as early video games.

      The cathode ray tubes changed in shape from rectangular to circle and grew in size and power. Images became quicker to load, and in 1954, electrics powerhouse RCA began to produce a coloured version.

      Over the following decades, the big names of electrics joined in, with brands such as Sony and Panasonic bringing out their own line of CRT televisions.

      With the birth of computers came the need for screens, and the CRT was widely used across computer screens all over the world.

      It was an invention that was providing entertainment and information to people all across the globe, but at the turn of the millennium, it all changed.


      After 2000, television sets began to be produced with LCD screens. This stands for light crystal display, and this competitor soon began to take a lot of attention away from the CRTs.

      The big companies starting use LCDs in computer and television screens as after much development the image quality was deemed to be sharper. Another big reason was that they could be flat.

      Whereas a cathode ray tube takes up room, an LCD screen does not. It was in 2007 that LCD sales overtook CRT sales for the first time, and it hasn’t slowed down since.

      The capacity for improvement in LCDs was vast, and as screens got bigger and slimmer and the want for higher definition grew, so did the market control of LCDs.

      But this wasn’t the end for cathode ray tubes.

      What CRTs Are Used For Now

      CRTs are still used in many screens all over the world.

      They are durable and have no motion lag like their LCD rivals, which makes them a more attractive option to many industries.

      Popular in places such as airline cockpits and deemed by many as better suited to run old video games and home videos, the CRT is still going strong, as it nears a century since the first CRT symbol was ever illuminated on a screen.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      At Moores Glass, we are experts in glass manufacturing, and this includes Cathode Ray Tube casings. Take a look at our dedicated CRT page to find out more or why not take a look at our blogs on the uses and manufacture of cathode ray tubes.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture Process

      Why Use Cathode Ray Tubes?

      1023 574 mattd

      A Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a device used to produce cathode rays within a vacuum tube. The device accelerates the rays through a magnetic, electrical field to create images on a fluorescent screen.

      The earliest CRTs were developed in 1897 by German physicist Ferdinand Braun. Called the Braun Tube, these early CRTs employed a cold cathode for working, using a phosphor-coated mica screen and a diaphragm to create a visible dot. Braun later went on to invent the cathode ray tube oscilloscope, also known as Braun’s Electrometer.

      In the early 1900s, cathode ray tubes used cold cathodes. But a hot cathode was developed by John b. Johnson and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric. These hot cathodes used a thin filament heated to an extremely high temperature by passing electricity through it.

      Commercial CRTs date back to 1934 when German company Telefunken used them to develop radio and television technology. This technology was used in large-scale manufacturing of television sets right up to around the year 2000 when the development of Liquid Crystal Display, Light Emitting Diode and Plasma TVs took over.

      Cathode ray tube displays for Medical Imaging

      For decades, the cathode-ray tube has been at the heart of medical imaging displays. The images produced are used for medical diagnosis in which the patient doesn’t have to undergo any painful, physically intrusive diagnostic tests to find out what is wrong with them.

      Medical imaging equipment using CRT technology produces easily readable, high-resolution images that allow doctors to diagnose medical conditions quickly and accurately.

      After CRT technology was used to display television images in 1929, CRT imaging applications were further refined and improved and adopted by the medical profession because of the diagnostic and treatment advantages it offered.

      Are CRTs still manufactured and used today? Yes!

      Vacuum tube industry manufacturers, such as Moore’s Glassworks, continue to serve many needs across a wide range of industries.

      Cathode ray tube technologies are used in many products and industries, such as:

      · Commercial and industrial heating

      · Communications: microwave, travelling wave, and high-power amplifier tubes

      · Lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, and high-power arc lamps

      · Medical Testing: x-ray tubes

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture Process

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture Process

      Should we still maintain and use CRTs? Yes!

      The science and technology behind CRTs are sound. CRTs are tried, tested and proven across many different applications. Their decades-long use, effectiveness and efficiency mean that investing in CRT technology is a reliable and trustworthy choice.

      Some of the advantages CRTs have over other solutions include:

      · Availability and accessibility. Moore’s Glassworks offer a flexible service with a quick turnaround

      · Cost-effectiveness. Their high-quality raw material components offer great value for money

      · Eco-friendly materials. For businesses looking to reduce their carbon footprint, it is easy to refurbish, reuse, recycle, and avoid waste

      · Proven performance and reliability. When you need a technology you can rely on; there is no need to try more costly and unproven alternatives

      CRT maintenance and upkeep

      Over the lifetime of CRT technology, the phosphor coating will wear down, causing some loss in functionality. Refreshing the phosphor is a normal part of maintaining your CRTs, and there are various types of phosphor coating that are suitable depending on your needs and how you use your CRTs.

      It is best to discuss your CRT needs directly with our team at Moore’s Glassworks. We can help you with the best choice of CRT for your application.

      Investing in CRTs is a safe bet because the technology has been around for decades and is set to be still a practical choice for many more years to come! Our company uses world-class, high-technology manufacturing processes with outstanding Quality Assurance testing to deliver precision products across a wide variety of industries and applications.

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      Want to know about the way Moores Glass manufacture CRT casings? Visit our cathode ray tube page for more information or check out our blogs on the story and manufacture of cathode ray tubes.

      Hollow Cathode

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      300 300 mattd

      We have to credit the discovery of glass for giving us many useful things. Our ability to manipulate raw materials to suit our needs started in ancient history with the fashioning of rocks to make spears and arrowheads. Later we used bronze and then iron tools, eventually evolving to transform iron into steel and seeing the birth of the industrial revolution.

      The one ancient technology that we need to be so grateful for is the development of glass. Without glass, we would never have windows in our homes to let in light or have created beautiful glassware to drink from and to decorate our homes with.

      If glass didn’t exist, we wouldn’t have been able to develop cathode ray tubes. We would have no CRT display televisions, computer monitors or other display technologies such as liquid crystal display (LCD), and most certainly we wouldn’t have invented the smartphone screen you are probably reading this piece through!

      Cathode ray tubes: The alchemy of glass and metal

      When you go back just a couple of hundred years it was hard to separate science from magic. Early alchemists experimented with many raw materials to discover many things we take for granted these days. Back in 1895, scientist Wilhelm Roentgen took a photograph of his wife that showed her bones. These were the first steps into proving the existence of invisible rays, later called X-rays, that was shot from a glass and metal machine.

      The world was turned upside down with this discovery and this led more scientists to study X-rays and to wonder what else they could discover. Their studies led them to understand that by attaching a battery to a stretched glass globe they could produce a stream called a cathode ray. When a cathode ray hits a piece of metal within a globe, it projects X-rays.

      But it was the science of cathode rays that unlocked a whole gamut of new possibilities. Hidden inside was the key to developing new technologies from your kitchen toaster to computers and mobile phones – the electron.

      None of these discoveries would have been possible without scientists being able to study cathode rays under glass. Without glass, none of the technologies of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries would have been possible.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      The invention of the cathode-ray vacuum tube

      Once scientific tools had advanced enough, it was possible to draw more air out of a glass tube to create a vacuum. Cathode rays thrive better in a vacuum, so in late 1896, two scientists made a cathode-ray obstacle course to answer the question of whether cathode rays were made of waves or particles.

      A glass bulb was fashioned with elements contained inside. At one end of the glass tube two metal pins attached to a battery to create the cathode ray while inside the glass tube, the cathode rays projected outward in a spray pattern. The vacuum tube acted like a hosepipe to direct the rays into a beam that hit the internal elements creating a glow.

      It was found that only glass would work during these experiments and trials with copper and other metal materials didn’t work. The metal experiments resulted in the cathode rays being buried, and tests using clay and wood were impossible because those materials couldn’t hold a vacuum.

      The glass was found to be the best keeper of a vacuum. It had no interest in conducting electrical current, it was easy to manipulate and shape to suit the desires of the scientists, but the best thing about glass was its clarity allowed scientists to observe and accurately record their experiments.

      Moore’s Cathode-Ray Tubes

      Moore’s Glassworks are manufacturers of cathode-ray tube casings that can be made to our customer’s specifications. We produce tubes in diameters ranging from 25mm to 175mm with round or rectangular faceplates.

      You can find out more about our cathode-ray tubes or get in touch with our friendly team to discuss your needs.