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      Viewport Background

      A Guide to Vacuum Viewports

      1024 693 Matthew Morris

      At Moores Glassworks, we create many different glass products that have many uses.

      Some of our products can be explained in previous blogs, such as this one on cathode ray tubes and this one on photoionization detectors.

      Another popular product that we ship all over the world is vacuum viewports.

      We create many different variations of vacuum viewports that can be used in different environments.

      What is a Vacuum Chamber?

      In most vacuum chambers there will be a vacuum pump.

      This pump is used to take all of the gas and air from inside the chamber.

      There are many instances that a vacuum chamber is used, including when drying out products by lowering the boiling point of water to around 30 degrees, and also when working on equipment that will be used in an environment devoid of air, such as in space.

      Chambers are often made of metal and can range in size.

      The largest is at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Sandusky Ohio and reaches a whopping 122 feet tall and 100 feet wide.

      This is used to test how vehicles will react when in space.

      Smaller vacuum chambers, measuring around 10 cm wide can be bought for personal use and are found regularly in households to dry items and for other uses.

      Of course, when analysing items inside a vacuum chamber, you need to be able to see in, and sometimes to be able to alter the process, and this is where a vacuum viewport comes in.

      What is a Vacuum Viewport?

      Vacuum viewports are a vital part of any vacuum chamber, allowing visual access into the vacuum chamber while maintaining the vacuum integrity.

      There are various reasons that viewports are used on a vacuum chamber.

      Primarily, they are used to observe the process taking place inside the chamber and illuminating the inside of the chamber through a viewport is common practice.

      You can also use a viewport to alter the process inside the vacuum, by using electromagnetic waves that are shot inside the chamber.

      Vacuum Viewports

      Vacuum Viewports

      Types of Vacuum Viewport 

       There are many different types of vacuum viewports available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

      Choosing the right viewport for you depends on the chamber that you are using and the specific needs you require.

      Ultra-High Vacuum Viewports 

      The most common type of vacuum viewport is the ultra-high vacuum viewport.

      These are best used in situations where the pressure inside the chamber is very high. To make sure the viewport is safe, it is made from extremely strong and durable materials.

      At Moore’s Glassworks, we use optical quality ‘Kodail’ glass which is sealed into ‘Kovar’ spinnings.

      These are extremely tough and will withstand heavy pressure from inside the chamber.

      Ultra-high vacuum viewports also have a very low outgassing rate, which makes them ideal for use in ultra-high vacuum chambers.

      Other Vacuum Chamber Viewports

      As mentioned previously, not all vacuum viewports are classed as ultra-high. There are many others on the market which work perfectly well in low-pressure situations.

      These are made from a less expensive material and are often easier to install.

      However, they are not as strong as the ultra-high vacuum viewports and may not be able to withstand the pressure inside some of the larger and more volatile chambers.

      Vacuum Viewports

      The Viewport 

       Viewports basically come in two parts. The viewport itself and the flange.

      The viewport is the glass, and at Moores Glassworks, we use kodial.

      This viewport, or lens, is hermetically sealed to ensure the nothing can seep in or out of the chamber.

      We supply the full range of viewports at Moores Glassworks, including CF viewports, KF glass viewports, ISO coated kodial viewports and ISO coated borosilicate glass viewports.

      If you are unsure of your requirements, get in touch with one of our experts for professional advice.

       The Flange

      The flange is the outer ring of the viewport, and this can come in many different varieties, including:


      • Conflat – This design binds two identical flanges together to create a tough seal. You can spot a Conflat as it often has holes around the rim.


      • ISO KF – For high compatibility, this design consists of an inner ring which is tightly kept in place with a clamp.


      • ISO LF – Similar to KF, but this design has grooves that further strengthen the tight grip on the central ring.


      All of the flanges produced by Moores Glassworks are made from 304L stainless steel and the spinning material is the highly magnetic Kovar.

      Moores Glasswork’s Vacuum viewports 

       At Moores’ Glassworks, we ensure that all of the viewports we send to customers are high quality and made to fit their chamber perfectly.

      We do this by working to a brief given to us by the customer, which allows us to build the viewport to the exact dimension needed to make sure it is safe.

      Not only is the dimension important, but also the pressure inside the chamber, the type of chamber you have, and the budget you have set aside for the viewport.

      We have a dedicated quality control team who check every product that leaves our warehouse.

      This means that no viewport will be delivered without checking it is perfect for the job at hand.

      All of our viewports are also cleaned according to UHV standards and have a maximum temperature of 400 degrees, with a maximum heating rate of 3 degrees a minute.


      Get in Touch

       If you’re looking for a professional, tailor-made viewport to fit your vacuum chamber, then get in touch with Moores Glassworks today.

      We can provide a free quote and will make the viewport to your exact specification.

      We look forward to hearing from you.

      Glass Manufacutre

      The Glass Manufacturing Process: What Happens at Moore’s Glassworks?

      1024 576 Matthew Morris

      The glass industry manufacturing process contains many different elements depending on the job and the tools at hand.

      At the heart of it though, is the process of glass forming. The differences come in factors such as if you’re using machinery or engineers, and the size of the job.

      If someone is looking to produce multi-pin bases, the work carried out within the glassworks would be different to when creating a glass condom mould, but the science behind it all would be the same.

      At Moore’s Glassworks, we use state-of-the-art machinery alongside expert professionals to manufacture glass that is sent all over the world and is used in many industries including science and the military.

      But how does the relationship between man and machine work?

      Let’s take a look.

      Receiving the Order

      The first thing that needs to happen for us to make a product is for a customer to get in touch.

      Many businesses require our products to operate, and therefore it is vital we stick to their product descriptions accurately.

      No matter the size of the job, our team of trained engineers and our auto lathe machinery can form our glass products to be just the way you need them.

      All you need to do is let us know what you need, and we will produce it.

      The Glass Manufacturing Process

      Once we know the full details of the product we must manufacture, the process can begin.

      Most of the products at Moore’s Glassworks are created by our skilled glassblowers and engineers.

      While we do use the auto lathes for some jobs, all of our products are checked over by one of our engineers before it is shipped, to ensure it is of the highest quality.

      So, just what goes on when creating products such as cathode ray tube glass and vacuum viewports?

      Well, if one of our glassblowers is working alone on a manual lathe, they will use hot forming techniques to mould the glass into the desired shape.

      After making every adjustment to the glass, the work can be checked before the engineer works out their next move in the process.

      Throughout the manufacture, extreme heat is applied to areas of the glass, allowing it to be shaped.

      Through years of experience, our engineers are highly adept at judging the environment in which the process is taking place and working out the best steps to progress with the job.

      While our engineers always achieve stunning results, we use our very own auto lathe machines, which can do a very similar job, producing quick results and high consistency.

      The way the auto lathes work is that the glass is placed in the machine, from where it is thermographically analysed throughout the process of pulling, pushing, blowing and many other methods of shaping the glass.

      These auto lathes replicate the work of human engineers, but instead of an engineer visibly checking the work that is taking place, the auto lathe is constantly analysing the product through its thermographic readings.

      Auto lathes have many benefits, including the fact that they can be programmed to produce large batches of identical products in quick succession.

      If I’m making this sound easy, then I can assure you now that it is not.

      Many different factors, such as the size of the job or the heat of the flame can have a big effect on the glass manufacturing process, and there are also plenty of hazards.

      auto lathe machine

      One of our auto-lathe machines

      Hazards in Glass Manufacturing Industry

      Despite a 50% decrease in accidents in the last ten years, there are still many potentially hazardous situations in the glass manufacturing industry. Here are three:


      Like any manufacturing warehouse, there is the possibility of injury. With heavy-duty machinery in constant use, it is vital that full training is undergone prior to working in our building. We provide all staff with comprehensive training on the use of our machinery to ensure that everyone is aware of the best practices when it comes to operation. Also, we make sure all employees are trained in handling the glass products we manufacture to make certain that injuries are avoided.


      Glass manufacturers, like any manufacturer, can be noisy. With machinery constantly in operation, this can really ramp up the volume. At Moore’s Glassworks, we try and keep noise to a minimum, and many of our machines can be used without the need for ear protectors. Of course, if one of our engineers did desire protection, we have heavy-duty ear protectors readily available.


      When working with fire, there will always be a hazard. If not handled correctly, this can lead to injury, and therefore we take this very seriously in our warehouse. All of our staff undertake thorough training and are all experts in using fire in a safe and professional manner. Full protective equipment is also supplied if needed.

      Quality Control 

      Of course, sometimes things don’t go to plan, and that’s why we have a strict quality control policy at Moore’s Glassworks.

      Especially when not using our auto lathes, which are extremely precise, it is vital to check every product is safe and in the perfect condition to be shipped to our customers.

      We are proud to say that our products are always of the highest quality and standard, and our quality checks are a huge part of this.

      Nothing leaves our manufacturing plant without a full check, and that’s just one reason our customers love working with us.

      Quality Control

      Quality control at Moore’s Glassworks

      Final Thoughts

      Once the product is ready and fully checked, it can be stored in one of our warehouses (based in the UK and Belgium) before being shipped to our customer.

      If you would need the service of our team at Moore’s Glassworks, then why not get in touch today and allow us to provide a quote.

      From graded seals to photo ionisation detector glass bodies, we work to your needs and always produce a product of the highest quality.

      Glass being formed

      7 Interesting Facts About Glass

      952 685 Matthew Morris

      At Moore’s Glassworks, we have been moulding, forming, and shaping glass for over 40 years.

      Over that time, we have come to learn so much about this versatile and flexible material.

      While the technology has improved, and we now have state-of-the-art auto lathes to form glass with ultimate precision, there is still a much needed human element to the quality control in our glass blowing.

      Take a look outside and you will see the product of many glass manufacturer’s work all over the place.

      From car windows and ornamental vases to beer bottles and reading glasses, there are lots of examples of glass being used throughout modern society.

      There are many stunning and surprising facts about this material, and here are our top 7, starting with where it all began.

      1. Man-made glass dates back around 4000 years

      While there is a lot of contention about which region the science of making glass was truly discovered, the time period is under no debate.

      Around 4000 years ago, sometime around 2000BC, workers in Mesopotamia and Egypt discovered how to create glass.

      How do we know this?

      Well, inside the London Museum is an ornament bearing the hieroglyph of Thutmose III, who reigned as the pharaoh of Egypt around 1450 BC. This, among other archaeological finds, show that glass was being created, and moulded at this time.

      So how did it work?

      Glass manufacturing in this time period was very different to what it is now. Studying the chemicals of these found artefacts points to the use of quartz pebbles and plant ashes. These would have been burnt down until they formed glass in liquid form, which could then be shaped.

      We’ve come a long way since then, but glass has never stopped being used for vases and ornaments.

      2. Glass can form in natural ways

      But it’s not just humans who can create glass.

      Nature has its own way of forming sculptures from this material.

      For example, when lava from volcanoes is rapidly cooled down when thrown into the air, a material known as obsidian is formed. Often a deep, black colour, this is similar to the glass normally found in windows but a lot tougher.

      Another natural form of glass are fulgurites.

      Amazingly, as a lightning strike hits rock or silica sand, glass formations can rise from the ground in the shape of the strike.

      This phenomenon is known as fulgurite. As most lightning strikes hit the ground at around 2500 degrees Celsius, this is enough to melt the material it hits. A temperature of around 1800 degrees is a rough minimum needed to form a fulgurite.

      Unsurprisingly, these can be found in high areas, such as up mountains, that are more susceptible to such strikes.

      Moulding glass

      3. Venice was once known as the glass manufacturing capital of the world

      As we mentioned earlier, Moore’s Glassworks has been manufacturing glass for over 40 years, but some glass manufacturers go back centuries.

      Around the 12th century, Venice became famous for its glassmaking capabilities. Through connections with the middle East, glassblowing methods that had been created and defined in Syria and Egypt were passed onto European shores.

      From the new hub in Venice, glass was sent all over the world.

      A couple of centuries later, and Venetians were spreading their talents across the globe, bringing with them the glassblowing equipment needed to produce fine products at speed (as well as creating transparent glass).

      Glass manufacturing was already rapidly underway in London, and America quickly followed, with the first glass manufacturing plant opening in Jamestown, Virginia in 1608.

      4. There aren’t many materials as sustainable as glass

      Glass is a material that is as environmentally friendly as it gets.

      100% reusable and recyclable, glass has one of the quickest turnaround times of any material, being reshaped and reused in 30 days in some instances.

      So, how does glass get recycled?

      Well, the process is simple. As glass gets handed over to the glassworks, it is crushed, before being melted. You now have a liquid which you can mould and form into any shape you want and that can be back on the shelves within a month.

      Used glass (often known as cullet) has a low melting point compared to many other raw materials, which means that the energy used throughout the recycling process is much less.

      All of this makes recycling glass even more important, and makes the material itself, one of the best to use for packaging and storage.

      Glass connection

      5. The Romans were the first to use glass for windows

      Around the 1st century AD, the Roman’s began to produce glass on a large scale. This rapid rise in production led to the first glass being used for windows.

      While these windows wouldn’t resemble the transparent ones we look out of today (they would have probably been black) this was the birth of the window as we know it.

      Around a millennium later, and stained glass is known to be used in buildings such as churches. Built in the late 11th century, the Augsburg cathedral in Bavaria, Germany, is said to be one of the earliest instances of stained glass being used.

      So, when did glass become transparent?

      In Britain, glass windows were seen, albeit rarely, in the 16th century. These replaced windows made of animal horn and other materials such as paper.

      Through the centuries, the use of glass on windows became more common and affordable, until most houses across the country began to take advantage of the properties of transparent glass in their homes.

      6. Glass isn’t a normal solid material

      Okay, hear me out on this one.

      While glass is solid in terms of its nature (if you knock on your window it won’t bend) it technically isn’t classed as a completely solid material.

      Instead, it is labelled an amorphous solid.

      What this means is that the molecules in glass are still moving. Unlike a solid where the molecules are rigid and unmovable, or a liquid where the molecules move freely, an amorphous solid’s molecules move at a very slow rate.

      The molecules in glass are not rigid, and hold no pattern, which is why it is more susceptible to breakages.

      The molecules inside glass have no structure, which leads to the many different shards that break off when glass is shattered.

      But, before you panic thinking over time your windows may turn into a blob, a study found it would take longer than the existence of the universe for glass to do this.

      7. Glass has been the linchpin for many scientific and technological inventions

      As the use of glass became more widespread, it’s uses became more varied.

      Just as Moore’s glass, we showcase many uses of glass in the forming of our cathode ray tubes, vacuum viewports, glass condom moulds and multi-pin bases.

      Screens on smartphones, cameras, televisions, fibre optic wires, and more are all inventions that have changed the shape of the world we live in, and that all contain glass.

      Not just ornamental, glass has many qualities that make it ideal for inventions of this nature.

      There’s a reason Steve Jobs was adamant the first iPhone would have a glass screen instead of a plastic one.

      It’s tough, clean, transparent, recyclable and shapable, making it a dream material for inventors and manufacturers alike.

      Multi Pin

      Moore’s Glassworks

      Our team of expert glass technicians produce many different products every day.

      From the products mentioned above, to custom glassworks fitted exactly to the customer’s needs, we are sure to be able to provide what you’re looking for.

      Get in touch today to see what Moore’s Glassworks can do for you.

      What is a Photoionization Detector?

      952 600 Matthew Morris

      Many workplaces across the world use photoionization detectors (PIDs).

      The main focus of a PID is to locate and pinpoint the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air.

      Since the 1970s, workplaces that may be susceptible to leaks of such compounds, which contains gases such as methane, formaldehyde and ethanol, have used PIDs to monitor how safe the environment is.

      Most PIDs now come in the form of handheld devices which can be used to constantly check all areas of a workplace.

      But just what is going on inside a PID.

      Let’s find out.

      What is a Photoionization Detector?

      Inside a PID, molecules are broken down and turned into positively charged ions. This is done by taking a sample of air and firing ultraviolet rays through it.

      When VOCs enter a PID, these rays ionize them. Whether or not they are ionized depends on the ionization energy of the VOC.

      It is impossible to gain an exact figure with a PID, but by using a gas that is a good middle ground (more often than not isobutylene) you can gain a good approximation of the VOC volume in the air.

      The basis of how a PID works, is that each ion that is created adds to an electric current that is made visible or audible and displayed. The bigger the current, the more ions that are being created, thus the more chance of their being a large amount of VOCs in the air.

      If someone is working in a building and there is a suspected leak somewhere, this could lead to a high volume of VOCs in the air.

      Using a PID, they can gain a good idea of the VOC volume in the area, as well as being able to track it over time.


      What are Volatile Organic Compounds?

      There are over 1000 volatile organic compounds that can be measured in the air, but some of the most common are found in things such as paint, aerosol sprays and certain fuels.

      Not all VOCs are harmful to humans but some such as ethanol and formaldehyde can be dangerous if ingested.

      PIDs are vital in addressing any VOC pollution in the air, and they are often used in areas such as healthcare, environmental industries and construction where potentially hazardous materials are often used.

      The Story of Photoionization Detectors

      In 1973, vinyl chloride was commonly used (we now use PVC). When many workers were getting seriously ill after working in close proximity to vinyl chloride, it was figured that this was due to the material and the VOCs that it produced.

      A PID was first used the following year. Before this, the more common instrument for assessing air quality was a flame ionization detector, but this was limited in the number of VOCs it could spot.

      The PID bought with it the ability to pinpoint huge amounts of VOCs, and thus soon found itself at the forefront of the detection industry.

      Soon enough PIDs became commonplace in many workplaces, but especially ones that were potentially vulnerable to high VOC amounts in the air.

      PID joining

      Joining PID glass

      Modern Day Uses

      PIDs don’t come without their limitations. They can’t pinpoint specific VOCs and they can never provide a 100% accurate number.

      What they can do though is give an immediate answer to a very important question.

      With most VOC issues coming from leaks, having a PID on hand can give a quick reading of just how dangerous a room could be.

      This small item can be the difference between life and death if used rightly.

      In industries where fuel is continuously stored, or preservatives are constantly used, keeping a regular monitoring of the VOCs that are being released into the air provides an insight into how safe a working environment is.

      This is why military personnel, warehouse operatives, manufacturers and farmers all benefit from using PIDs around their workplace.

      They are easy to install, cheap to run, and have huge benefits when it comes to keeping you, and your workmates safe.

      The Manufacture of PID Glass

      PIDs always contain a glass element.

      This is the UV lamp, and it is often on one side of the PID. When the air vapour enters the PID it flows into the ionization chamber. At some point there will be another opening, and in this opening will be the UV lamp which begins to send out its beams.

      In the ionization chamber, between the vapour opening and the lamp, is where the ionization of the molecules takes place.

      The glass elements of a PID can come in many different shapes and sizes.

      Pid joining

      PID Joining

      Moores Glassworks and PIDs

      Moores Glassworks manufacture glass bodies that are used inside PIDs.

      Every item we produce is created in our automated, in-house lathes and is always produced to the highest quality.

      There is a wide range of PIDs that are used throughout the world.

      For people who are constantly on the go, a handheld PID that can be transported around with you is handy. For rooms that are susceptible to leaks and spillages, static lamps are often placed at a point in the room to continuously monitor the environment.

      No matter what your requirements, get in touch today and we will be able to produce a PID glass body just the way you need it.


      PIDs may look like a simple tool from the outside, but there is a lot taking place inside one of these machines that could have the potential to save lives.

      At Moores Glass, we have been manufacturing glass for many years and are proud to offer PID glass that is manufactured to our customer’s needs. 

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      The Story of the Cathode Ray Tube

      952 600 Matthew Morris

      For most people, the cathode ray tube (CRT) may sound like an alien object.

      In a nutshell, it is an gun that fires electrons onto a surface. When the beams hit the surface, which is often phosphorescent, the beam becomes visible. This in turn creates an image.

      If you think this sounds like something from a sci-fi novel, then you’re wrong, as most people probably have cathode ray tubes in objects around their home. Before the birth of LED and LCD television screens, most of the TVs around used CRTs to function.

      The electron gun is stored in a tube. When this is manipulated, the beams that are emitted from the gun create different images when connecting with the phosphorescent screen, thus an image appears on your computer or television screen.

      But how did this come to be? And how did something so technical end up inside television screens across the land?

      Let’s take a look.

      Finding the Rays

      Many different figures feature in the origin of the CRT.

      First came the discovery of the cathode ray. Two German physicists by the names of Johan Wilhelm Hittorf and Julius Plucker are given credit for first spotting rays being shot from a cathode. A cathode is a negatively charged electrode, and it was when luminous shapes started to emerge inside a tube containing one, that the cathode ray was found.

      By moving a magnet near the tube, Plucker found he could manipulate the rays, and the idea of using rays to produce images first became a possibility.

      Other names who were paramount in the origin of the CRT were Arthur Schuster and William Crookes, who further developed Plucker and Hittorf’s work into how magnetic and electric fields could change the direction of the electron beam.

      Next came the gun to fire them with.

      The Braun Tube

      Karl Ferdinand Braun was another German physicist who carried also a keen interest in engineering.

      In 1897, he created what he called ‘the Braun tube’. This was the first CRT that was made to present images on a screen and paved the way for the future uses of such a device.

      From Braun’s initial invention, the CRT continued to evolve. Into the 20th century, the whole world began to know about the tube, and this led to further experimentation on just what the capabilities of this device were.

      Hollow Cathode

      Hollow Cathode

      The Journey to the Screen

      In 1922, two engineers at Western Electrics began to use hot cathodes in a CRT. This meant that a cathode was heated electrically, and used thermionic emissions to fire electrons. Compared to cold cathodes which had previously been used, this essentially meant less power was needed, and more power was emitted.

      The next step was to get it working, and this took place in Japan. Dubbed ‘the father of television’, Kenjiro Takanayagi is credited with being the creator of the first CRT television. In 1926, Takanayagi used an electronic CRT to create a symbol. It was a letter similar to the British T but was actually the first letter of the old Japanese alphabet.

      The resolution was 40 lines, but a year later this had increased to 100. Another year later he was able to create images such as faces. Less than a decade on from when he produced an image of a letter, in 1935, Takanayagi had invented the first electronic television set.

      If looking in slow motion at a CRT television, you would notice the lines begin at the top of the screen, and work their way down from left to right. This was how the images were produced, in a gradual and methodical way. Over time the process sped up, to the point where it was unnoticeable.

      The CRT television was born, and now all that was left to do was make it stronger.

      The Rise of the CRT TV

      From the mid-1930s onwards, the CRT began to rise in prominence. Televisions began to be produced on a huge scale, as well as early video games.

      The cathode ray tubes changed in shape from rectangular to circle and grew in size and power. Images became quicker to load, and in 1954, electrics powerhouse RCA began to produce a coloured version.

      Over the following decades, the big names of electrics joined in, with brands such as Sony and Panasonic bringing out their own line of CRT televisions.

      With the birth of computers came the need for screens, and the CRT was widely used across computer screens all over the world.

      It was an invention that was providing entertainment and information to people all across the globe, but at the turn of the millennium, it all changed.


      After 2000, television sets began to be produced with LCD screens. This stands for light crystal display, and this competitor soon began to take a lot of attention away from the CRTs.

      The big companies starting use LCDs in computer and television screens as after much development the image quality was deemed to be sharper. Another big reason was that they could be flat.

      Whereas a cathode ray tube takes up room, an LCD screen does not. It was in 2007 that LCD sales overtook CRT sales for the first time, and it hasn’t slowed down since.

      The capacity for improvement in LCDs was vast, and as screens got bigger and slimmer and the want for higher definition grew, so did the market control of LCDs.

      But this wasn’t the end for cathode ray tubes.

      What CRTs Are Used For Now

      CRTs are still used in many screens all over the world.

      They are durable and have no motion lag like their LCD rivals, which makes them a more attractive option to many industries.

      Popular in places such as airline cockpits and deemed by many as better suited to run old video games and home videos, the CRT is still going strong, as it nears a century since the first CRT symbol was ever illuminated on a screen.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      At Moores Glass, we are experts in glass manufacturing, and this includes Cathode Ray Tube casings. Take a look at our dedicated CRT page to find out more.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture Process

      Why Use Cathode Ray Tubes?

      1023 574 mattd

      A Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is a device used to produce cathode rays within a vacuum tube. The device accelerates the rays through a magnetic, electrical field to create images on a fluorescent screen.

      The earliest CRTs were developed in 1897 by German physicist Ferdinand Braun. Called the Braun Tube, these early CRTs employed a cold cathode for working, using a phosphor-coated mica screen and a diaphragm to create a visible dot. Braun later went on to invent the cathode ray tube oscilloscope, also known as Braun’s Electrometer.

      In the early 1900s, cathode ray tubes used cold cathodes. But a hot cathode was developed by John b. Johnson and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric. These hot cathodes used a thin filament heated to an extremely high temperature by passing electricity through it.

      Commercial CRTs date back to 1934 when German company Telefunken used them to develop radio and television technology. This technology was used in large-scale manufacturing of television sets right up to around the year 2000 when the development of Liquid Crystal Display, Light Emitting Diode and Plasma TVs took over.

      Cathode ray tube displays for Medical Imaging

      For decades, the cathode-ray tube has been at the heart of medical imaging displays. The images produced are used for medical diagnosis in which the patient doesn’t have to undergo any painful, physically intrusive diagnostic tests to find out what is wrong with them.

      Medical imaging equipment using CRT technology produces easily readable, high-resolution images that allow doctors to diagnose medical conditions quickly and accurately.

      After CRT technology was used to display television images in 1929, CRT imaging applications were further refined and improved and adopted by the medical profession because of the diagnostic and treatment advantages it offered.

      Are CRTs still manufactured and used today? Yes!

      Vacuum tube industry manufacturers, such as Moores Glass, continue to serve many needs across a wide range of industries.

      Cathode ray tube technologies are used in many products and industries, such as:

      · Commercial and industrial heating

      · Communications: microwave, travelling wave, and high-power amplifier tubes

      · Lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, and high-power arc lamps

      · Medical Testing: x-ray tubes

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture Process

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture Process

      Should we still maintain and use CRTs? Yes!

      The science and technology behind CRTs are sound. CRTs are tried, tested and proven across many different applications. Their decades-long use, effectiveness and efficiency mean that investing in CRT technology is a reliable and trustworthy choice.

      Some of the advantages CRTs have over other solutions include:

      · Availability and accessibility. Moores Glass offer a flexible service with a quick turnaround

      · Cost-effectiveness. Their high-quality raw material components offer great value for money

      · Eco-friendly materials. For businesses looking to reduce their carbon footprint, it is easy to refurbish, reuse, recycle, and avoid waste

      · Proven performance and reliability. When you need a technology you can rely on; there is no need to try more costly and unproven alternatives

      CRT maintenance and upkeep

      Over the lifetime of CRT technology, the phosphor coating will wear down, causing some loss in functionality. Refreshing the phosphor is a normal part of maintaining your CRTs, and there are various types of phosphor coating that are suitable depending on your needs and how you use your CRTs.

      It is best to discuss your CRT needs directly with our team at Moores Glass. We can help you with the best choice of CRT for your application.

      Investing in CRTs is a safe bet because the technology has been around for decades and is set to be still a practical choice for many more years to come! Our company uses world-class, high-technology manufacturing processes with outstanding Quality Assurance testing to deliver precision products across a wide variety of industries and applications.

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      Want to know about the way Moores Glass manufacture CRT casings? Visit our cathode ray tube page for more information.

      Multi Pin

      What Are Multi-Pin Headers?

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      We are a specialist company that custom manufactures industrial glass and glass-to-metal products that are vital to many medical and industrial applications. We use cutting-edge manufacturing processes that will ensure your product meets your exact criteria.

      We produce our multi-pin bases and headers using either lead or Kodial glass (Schott 8250) to deliver the best possible performance no matter how they will be used. We make our multi-pin-headers to fit your individual specifications.

      As a world-leading manufacturer of custom glass products for over 40 years, which are unique for their quality and performance, we are able to produce top-quality multi-pin-headers that will deliver outstanding performance.

      What is a multi-pin header?

      Pin headers are a type of electrical connector usually made up of rows of pins that are moulded into a base and can be manufactured in many different pin spacings. There are male and female pin headers, but they can come under various names, such as Berg connectors etc.

      Multiple pin headers have been used for years in vacuum tubes within communications equipment and computers. The early products were made using nickel-iron pins and steel bodies, but these days are made using more robust, reliable and efficient materials that deliver outstanding performance in a wide variety of environments.

      These essential components have been designed for use within high-precision medical, scientific and industrial equipment, such as semiconductors and surgical tools and equipment. They are mainly used to transmit signals between modules and components with gas sealing requirements, such as electron tubes.

      Our multi-pin headers are produced in either lead or Kodial glass (Schott 8250) and are well known throughout the industry for their robustness, high performance and longevity.

      Our multi-pin-headers are used in a wide range of electron tubes such as photomultiplier, cathode ray, hollow cathode lamps, medical diagnostic equipment, anode and cathode connectors for X-rays, implantable feed-throughs, equipment pin base assemblies, filament supports, Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) connections, and more.

      Multi-Pin Headers

      Multi-Pin Headers

      All of our products are inspected before dispatch and come with our record of proven reliability and high performance.

      Do not hesitate to get in touch with our friendly team at Moores Glassworks for more information and to discuss your needs. Or if you want to know about our work, why not visit our dedicated multi-pin headers page here?


      Hollow Cathode

      Cathode Ray Tubes

      300 300 mattd

      We have to credit the discovery of glass for giving us many useful things. Our ability to manipulate raw materials to suit our needs started in ancient history with the fashioning of rocks to make spears and arrowheads. Later we used bronze and then iron tools, eventually evolving to transform iron into steel and seeing the birth of the industrial revolution.

      The one ancient technology that we need to be so grateful for is the development of glass. Without glass, we would never have windows in our homes to let in light or have created beautiful glassware to drink from and to decorate our homes with.

      If glass didn’t exist, we wouldn’t have been able to develop cathode ray tubes. We would have no CRT display televisions, computer monitors or other display technologies such as liquid crystal display (LCD), and most certainly we wouldn’t have invented the smartphone screen you are probably reading this piece through!

      Cathode ray tubes: The alchemy of glass and metal

      When you go back just a couple of hundred years it was hard to separate science from magic. Early alchemists experimented with many raw materials to discover many things we take for granted these days. Back in 1895, scientist Wilhelm Roentgen took a photograph of his wife that showed her bones. These were the first steps into proving the existence of invisible rays, later called X-rays, that was shot from a glass and metal machine.

      The world was turned upside down with this discovery and this led more scientists to study X-rays and to wonder what else they could discover. Their studies led them to understand that by attaching a battery to a stretched glass globe they could produce a stream called a cathode ray. When a cathode ray hits a piece of metal within a globe, it projects X-rays.

      But it was the science of cathode rays that unlocked a whole gamut of new possibilities. Hidden inside was the key to developing new technologies from your kitchen toaster to computers and mobile phones – the electron.

      None of these discoveries would have been possible without scientists being able to study cathode rays under glass. Without glass, none of the technologies of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries would have been possible.

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      Cathode Ray Tube Manufacture

      The invention of the cathode-ray vacuum tube

      Once scientific tools had advanced enough, it was possible to draw more air out of a glass tube to create a vacuum. Cathode rays thrive better in a vacuum, so in late 1896, two scientists made a cathode-ray obstacle course to answer the question of whether cathode rays were made of waves or particles.

      A glass bulb was fashioned with elements contained inside. At one end of the glass tube two metal pins attached to a battery to create the cathode ray while inside the glass tube, the cathode rays projected outward in a spray pattern. The vacuum tube acted like a hosepipe to direct the rays into a beam that hit the internal elements creating a glow.

      It was found that only glass would work during these experiments and trials with copper and other metal materials didn’t work. The metal experiments resulted in the cathode rays being buried, and tests using clay and wood were impossible because those materials couldn’t hold a vacuum.

      The glass was found to be the best keeper of a vacuum. It had no interest in conducting electrical current, it was easy to manipulate and shape to suit the desires of the scientists, but the best thing about glass was its clarity allowed scientists to observe and accurately record their experiments.

      Moores cathode-ray tubes

      Moores Glassworks are manufacturers of cathode-ray tube casings that can be made to our customer’s specifications. We produce tubes in diameters ranging from 25mm to 175mm with round or rectangular faceplates.

      You can find out more about our cathode-ray tubes or get in touch with our friendly team to discuss your needs.